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Most Common Diarrhea Causing Pathogens In the World

Diarrhea is a condition of having three or more loose or watery stools per day. The Most common infectious causes of diarrhea are given below.

The Most Common Diarrhea Causing Pathogens:
There are many causes of infectious diarrhea. Among viruses, Norovirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in elderly people while rotavirus is the most common cause of diarrhea in children less than 5 years of age. Adeno and astroviruses are also involved frequently in producing diarrhea.

Among bacteria, Campylobacter is most commonly involved. Shigella, Salmonella and E. Coli are also involved Frequently.

Parasites usually don't cause diarrhea except for Giardia. Giardia may cause diarrhea if untreated.
Other Causes OF Diarrhea:

There are different Types of Diarrhea.
Diarrhea can be secretory, Osmotic, Exudative, motility-related, inflammatory and blood mixed (dysentery)

Secretory Diarrhea is most commonly caused by cholera toxin. Which stimulates the secretion of anions (negative ions) especially chloride ions in the lumen. To maintain the charge balance sodium ions (which are positively charged) also move into the lumen and these ions attract water with them. The high concentration of ions in the lumen attract water because the concentration of water in the lumen decreases and water moves from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration.

Osmotic Diarrhea is caused by osmosis of water into the lumen.  malabsorption and mal-digestion syndromes cause this type of diarrhea. Laxative can also cause diarrhea when taken to treat constipation. Some hereditary defects such as deficiency of lactate dehydrogenase produce lactose intolerance and diarrhea.

Exudative Diarrhea is determined by the presence of pus and blood in the stool. It is present in inflammatory bowel diseases such as ulcerative colitis and chron disease and some virulent strains of E-coli also cause exudative diarrhea.

Hyper-motility diarrhea is caused by the rapid movement of food through the intestine. There is not enough time to absorb water and this appears in the stool. The causes are Diabetes, vagotomy, hyperthyroidism and surgical resection or removal of a part of the bowel.

Inflammatory diarrhea is caused by inflammation of lining mucosa of the intestine. Which decreases the ability of food absorption. Bacteria, It can be caused by bacterial infections, viral infections, parasitic infections, or autoimmune problems such as inflammatory bowel diseases. It can also be caused by tuberculosis, colon cancer, and enteritis

Dysentery is caused by Shigella, Entamoeba histolytica and Salmonella species. When visible blood is present in the liquid stool, then it is called dysentery.

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