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Showing posts from June, 2014

Treatment of Chronic and Long Term Knee Pain

Chronic or long-term knee is one of the most common complains in elderly. There are various causes of chronic knee pain. Read the following article to have a better idea of the causes of chronic and long term knee pain. Causes of Chronic knee pain In this article we will discuss the treatment of long-term knee pain. Over the counter pain killers, such as ibuprofen, acetaminophen are constantly being used by the patients. Moreover, other patients use steroid injection to get rid of pain and inflammation. In this article we will discuss few other treatment options apart from these commonly used methods. In elderly, over the counter pain killers are most commonly used. These individuals increase the dose of OTC medication without doctor’s advice. Moreover, Those patients whose age is greater than 65, the damage that has already occurred due to aging or contributing factors, can’t be reversed. So in such patients the chances of having side effects and risk of drug overdose increases p

USMLE/PLAB/AMC Clinical Case Quiz - 17

A 60-year-old male presents to you with a history of fever for more than 3 weeks. He also complains of dizziness, blackouts, weakness, and fatigability. He has no history of recent surgery and dental procedures. But he also complains of on and off constipation and rectal bleeding. For this, his doctor has advised him colonoscopy in the past. His colonoscopy showed an ulcerated fungated mass in the distal colon. On examination: He is febrile and pale, his blood pressure is 100/70. No lymph nodes. Her lungs are clear. No signs of a chest infection. Oral hygiene was adequate. Cardiac examination revealed a pan-systolic murmur , Grade III, with normal apex beat. Now answer the following questions. In end, you will get your score. Review the quiz when you finish seeing the correct answers. Click on “Feedback” during quiz review to find out why the answers are correct. Initial baseline investigations showed marked leukocytosis and microcytic hypochromic anemia. Like us on facebook

USMLE/PLAB/AMC Clinical Case Quiz - 16

A sixty-eight-year-old female presents in the outpatient department of your hospital with complaints of severe lower backache. Then the pain started when she tried to pick a heavy rock. The pain exaggerates with activity and relieves when the patient lays down. Pain increases in severity over time. There was no complain of numbness or tingling of legs and thighs. Her menses stopped at the age of 46 years and she didn’t receive any hormone replacement therapy. On examination the motor and sensory functions of lower limbs were normal. There was no weakness or sensory loss. The height of the women was 4 ft 10 inches. Although, her 2 and half year old medical records show 5 ft 1-inch height. Her weight was forty-six kilograms. Spine examination revealed tenderness at L2 and L3 level. Straight leg raises sign was negative. The patient walks slowly and her activity is limited due to pain. Kindly answer the following questions. Review quiz at the end to see which answers are correct. C

USMLE/PLAB/AMC–Clinical Case Quiz - 15

A 33-year-old female presented to the outpatient department complaining of drooping of both eyelids and difficulty in keeping her head up and speaking. The symptoms usually become worse at the end of the day. She has been feeling drooping of eyelids and blurred vision with varying intensity since last 2 and half years. She is otherwise normal. There is no other significant past medical and surgical history. She is not taking any medicine right now. On examination: Head is in the flexed position: Patient feel difficulty in extending the head. Difficulty in speaking. Pupil Normal. Partial drooping of both eyelids. Ocular movement normal. The soft palate doesn’t move. Upper lower limbs: Normal Motor and sensory function Cerebellum: Normal. Kindly answer the following questions. In the end, you will be able to see your score instantly. Review the quiz to check correct answers. Note: You must have the latest version of Flash player installed to view the questions. Like us on

Causes of Chronic and Constant Knee Pain

Chronic knee pain is long term pain. Constant chronic knee pain is a frequent presenting complain in orthopedic clinics and out patient departments. Usually older men and females complain of knee pain, but in certain conditions younger patients may also suffer from chronic knee pain. Chronic means long term, it is different from the term “acute” knee pain, that means short term pain which usually follows an acute insult to knee joint by accident or acute infection. Chronic knee pain is different from acute knee pain because it is long term and difficult to treat. Moreover, it seldom resolves spontaneously and it often needs treatment. Following are the most common causes of chronic and constant knee pain. Osteoarthritis : It is a degenerative disease that occurs in older individuals. Females after menopause are more at risk. Osteoarthritis is usually diagnosed on X-ray. Xray shows reduced joint space. Chondromalacia Patella: In chondromalacia patella, the cartilaginous bone in

Tension Headache, Headache due to Tension or Stress, Treatment

Tension is one of the major causes of all headaches. Tension headache is mild to moderate in intensity and feels like something is pressed inside the head. It is very uncomfortable and gives a grim look on the face of the sufferer. Other people can easily recognize him that he is suffering from some kind of tension or stress Types of Tension Headaches: 1. Episodic Tension Headache. Episodic tension headache occurs in episodes and between the episodes the person feels no symptom at all. Each episode lasts from 30 minutes to a week. Episodic tension headache occurs for less than 15 days a month for consecutive three months. 2. Chronic Tension Headache. Tension headache becomes chronic if it occurs more than 15 days a month for consecutive three months. Risk factors: Female sex is a risk factor because most of the females suffer from a tension headache. Middle age is another risk factor. Cause: Stress, tension or unsolved problem cause tension headache. Treatment. Over the counter pa