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Showing posts from December, 2014

Calculation of Caloric requirements of a normal and sick person

When you become ill or after an acute injury, you need more energy and calories to recover. You should take the right amount of food in order to make sure that you are getting enough calories. Now a question arises, how do you know about your caloric requirement? In order to do that, we have a formula and a chart. The formula to calculate calorie requirement is as follows; Total Calorie Requirement = (Basal Energy Expenditure) x (Activity Factor) x (Injury Factor) Now we have to put 3 values in this formula to get the result in the form of total calorie requirement. Basal Energy Expenditure First of all, let us find out the way of calculating basal energy expenditure. Basal energy expenditure is 25/kg for a normal person. So in order to calculate your basal energy expenditure use the following formula. Basal Energy Expenditure = (25) x (Weight in Kg) So by using the above formula, we will get the basal energy expenditure. Activity Factor Next in the formula is an activity

Beef tapeworm, Lifecycle, Clinical Signs, Diagnosis and Treatment

  Beef tapeworm also called Taenia saginata is a long segmented tape like worm. It tends to grow in length up to 10 meters. It is white in color and its body consists of a head, a neck and segments (proglottids). Its eggs are liberated by rupture of ripe proglottids. Eggs are oval and brown in color. Life cycle of Beef tapeworm. The definitive host of tapeworm is human. The tapeworm infection is more common in rural environment. Life cycle starts with the passage of eggs along with the feces of definitive host (man) on ground. These eggs contaminate the grass and grazing site. When an intermediate host, usually a cow feeds on this contaminated grass, the eggs enter its alimentary canal. In Cattle: In the alimentary canal of host, eggs rupture and oncospheres are liberated. These oncospheres penetrate the intestinal wall and enter the portal blood circulation. Via portal circulation they go to liver, right heart and then to the lungs. From the lungs they reach the left

Judicious use of antibiotics in dentistry, Dr Tayyab Saeed Akhtar

Dr Tayyab Saeed Akhtar, the registrar of medical unit 2 Holy Family Hospital Rawalpindi Pakistan, delivered a comprehensive lecture on “Judicious use of antibiotics in dentistry” at Armed Forces Institute of Dentistry Rawalpindi. Dr Tayyab Saeed Akhtar, who is also a member of the editorial board of comprehensively explained to his audience, the meaning of the term “judicious use of antibiotics” and also “why is this judicious of antibiotics important?”. He started his speech from the discovery of antibiotics. In 1929 when the first antibiotic was discovered, it wasn’t widely available. In the beginning, It was only used by the victims of World War II. Later, It became available in the market. Since the discovery and widespread use of antibiotics the life expectancy of human has been increased significantly. For example, the life expectancy of Americans has been increased from 47 years to 78 years now and the major reason of this phenomenal achievement is the ability t

Which anti-thyroid drug is safe in pregnancy?

Hyperthyroidism is a condition in which thyroid gland starts to secrete an increased amount of thyroxine in the blood. This, in turn, produces several effects in the body, including, palpitations, weight loss, increased appetite, heat intolerance, sleeplessness, generalized weakness and abortions. There are various causes that are responsible for this increased production of thyroxine by the thyroid gland. We will not go into this detail in this article but have explained it in a separate article, the link of which is stated below. Thyroid Diseases, an overview Hyperthyroidism in pregnancy should be treated, because it may result in fetal abnormalities. The thyroid hormone T3 and T4 crosses the placenta in small amounts. The amount of diffusion across the placenta decreases with the age of the pregnancy. But still, it may cross in significant amounts. The thyrotropin-releasing hormone and thyroid stimulating immunoglobulins (which are responsible for maternal hyperthyroidism) and be

Side Effects of Laser Hair Removal Therapy

Unwanted hair is one of the biggest problems that a woman faces. These hair are especially troublesome when present on face and neck. Such woman tries different painful methods like waxing, threading and shaving. These methods are time-consuming,un-natural and extremely painful. Sometimes these procedures may produce rashes or blisters on the skin. Many women choose these procedures because these are less expensive and can be done by anyone at home. Laser hair removal is very popular nowadays. It is easy to carry out, has fewer side effects, has the ability to remove the hair permanently but is expensive, needs the help of an expert and you have to follow some instructions and adapt some precautions. Laser hair removal is safe. One can remove facial hair within 2-3 minutes and completely get rid of them after only 3-4 sittings. But some time laser hair removal may cause some serious side effects, especially when this technique is done by a non-medical practitioner, a quack or an as