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Showing posts from October, 2012

Fine Needle Aspiration Procedure and Contraindications

FINE Needle Aspiration – FNA – Procedure and Contraindications Puncture Fine Needle Aspiration (FNA) is done to get a sample of cells of nodules or masses for microscopic examination. This test is indicated for the evaluation of nodules, masses or p alpable mass which has been visualized by previous imaging techniques. Usually, the examination is limited to superficial tumours. Nodules are found more commonly on mammary gland and the thyroid and this technique is used to take few cells out of the nodules for microscopic examination The cells are placed on microscope slides and examined by a cytopathologist (person studying alterations in the cell). Recent studies showed that this method gives around 75% sensitivity and specificity of over 90%. Also having a rate of false-positive results of approximately 01%, and false-negative results of 25 %. The false-negative results are more common because the needle was not inserted directly into  cancer . The needle may also have punched the

Cholelithiasis and Choledocholelithiasis-Signs Symptoms-Diagnosis and Treatment

Cholelithiasis and choledocholithiasis Cholelithiasis is the presence of calculus (stone) within the gallbladder. The gallbladder has a pear shape, with size approximately 10 cm. It is located near the liver and its function is to store bile. Bile is produced by the liver and is carried to the gallbladder to be stored and disposed of in the presence of food, especially rich in fats. The contraction of the gallbladder occurs when food reaches the small intestine and the bile is poured into the duodenum (first part of the small intestine) and mix with food that came from the stomach. Biliary tree = gallbladder, cystic duct, hepatic duct, right and left hepatic duct and common bile duct Extrahepatic biliary = right and left hepatic duct, common hepatic duct and common bile duct The common hepatic duct is formed by the confluence of the right and left hepatic duct that joins the cystic duct to form the common bile duct that leads to the junction of the common bile duct and the pancr

Ischemic Stroke-Concept-Signs and Symptoms-Risk Factors-Treatment

Ischemic stroke Concept:  The ischemic stroke is occlusion of a blood vessel that stops blood flow to a specific region of the brain, interfering with the neurological functions dependent on the region affected, producing deficit symptoms or characteristics, around 80% of strokes are ischemic. Ischemia can be permanent or temporary. In temporary cases, blood starts flowing back after some time. Such Ischemia is popularly known as "threat of stroke" (or Transient Ischemic Attack in medical terms). This is important because it is a sign that permanent ischemia can occur at any time if nothing is done to avoid them patient may get attacked by stroke. Signs and Symptoms:  Difficulty in speaking or understanding, loss of sensation in the limbs and balance unfold in minutes and get worse over the hours. The lack of irrigation in the brain may have given some warning sign weeks or even months before in the form of "mini attacks" in which signs appears and disappears s

Paracoccidioidomycosis - Symptoms - Diagnosis – Treatment

It is a systemic mycosis whose causal agent fungus Paracoccidioides brasiliensis. It is the most common mycosis in South America, and Brazil predominates in the South and Southeast. Contamination occurs through the skin or aspiration. To be inhaled, fungi reach the alveoli, where they are transformed into yeast, which are the infective forms. Resistance to infection is determined by the host's ability to slow the spread fungal, and cellular immune response to the primary defence mechanism. Signs and Symptoms: The most affected patients are white males with a history of work in the field. Pulmonary involvement is often chronic, localized or generalized. Besides the lungs, other organs can be affected, such as skin, mucous membranes, bones, lymph nodes, larynx, brain, digestive, urogenital and adrenal. Clinically, patients present with dyspnea (shortness of breath), dry or productive cough, expectoration, hemoptysis (blood) and chest pain. Some patients also report weight los

Urinary Tract Infection Basic Pathology, Causes and Symptoms

Urinary infection  Many women have the habit of going to the bathroom to take. And that's a problem, because when you retain urine in the bladder for a long time, bacteria are also there, which increases the risk of them adhere to the wall of the organ and cause urinary tract infection, drink at least 1.5 litres of water a day is essential to avoid the problem. Using pants that tighten and choke the genital region is a habit that can facilitate genital infections. And these, in turn, can also cause urinary infections. When you have an inflammation of the vagina, there are changes that eventually PH facilitating the creation of an enabling environment for bacteria that can cause a urinary problem, "he explains. According to doctors, men can also have the problem, but it is more common among women. This is because they have the urethra - raceway urine, leaving the bladder and ends in sex organ - shorter than that of men. In women, the bacteria in the vagina and per

Dr. Sarah Raquel Cavalcanti dos Santos -

Dr. Sarah Raquel Cavalcanti dos Santos Dr Sarah Raquel Cavalcanti dos Santos General medical, critical and reflective that can act with competence and scientific ethics in the health-disease through health promotion, prevention, protection and rehabilitation of the individual, family and community, through training excellence and committed to citizenship. Graduated in Biological Sciences from the Faculty of Educational Excellence of Rio Grande do Norte - Brazil Graduated in Technician of and Medical Imaging Radioogia. Radio tech - Brazil Graduated in Medicine By Potiguar University - Laureate International Universities Dr. Sarah Raquel Cavalcanti dos Santos Joined on 23rd October 2012. Articles Written By Dr Sarah: 1 .  Urinary Infection 2.  Paracoccidioidomycosis - Symptoms - Diagnosis – Treatment 3.  Cholelithiasis And Choledocholelithiasis-Signs Symptoms-Diagnosis And Treatment 4. Fine Needle Aspiration Procedure And Contraindications

I had Sex after my period ended, am i pregnant?

Q1: I would like advice please .I had sex on the 23 August a day after my periods ended.I was forced. Immediately after in the next 3 hours I took norlevo the morning after pill.. 5 days later I had heavy bleeding for days. The next month I never got my period.I am now in October and still No period although the month is not over I am worried its been 8 weeks with no period.I took 5 pregnancy test (urine test) and it all came negative but I heard it can not show till 16 weeks.I am not ready for a baby.I do feel hungry often but it could also be stress because I'm starting with my final exam soon. my boob look to me slightly swollen. What do you think.. I don't have money at the moment for blood test. how much does it cost? A1: hi thank you for asking a question. in your situation! it is very unlikely to get pregnant. I personally don't think that u are pregnant. u did not tell me your age. so it is difficult to say why your boobs are swollen maybe it is due to pubert

Brain Eating Amoeba Naegleria fowleri Habitat, Symptoms,Treatment, Prevention

Naegleria fowleri or The brain-eating amoeba. Brain-eating amoeba is a dangerous parasite which lives in fresh warm water, for example, lakes, and hot streams. Brain-eating amoeba is generally found in hot lakes of American South West. But now brain-eating amoeba has been identified in many other countries too. Recently It has killed 10 people in Karachi ( a City of Pakistan ). Karachi is situated at the coast of Arabian Sea. - Brain-eating amoeba is a deadly parasite. It develops as an amoeba. It enters the human body when water splashes through the nose. A nerve called olfactory nerve enters the brain through the holes in the bone which separates the cranial cavity from the nasal cavity. It attaches itself to the olfactory nerve and destroys its cells then it follows the nerve root to the brain where the amoeba starts consuming the brain cells, it means it damages the brain the vital organ of the body.  Symptoms of Brain Eating Amoeba Infection Symptoms of the infection includ

Sympathetic Ophthalmia or Sympathetic Ophthalmitis, Sympathizing Eye, Causes and Treatment.

Sympathetic Ophthalmia or Sympathetic Ophthalmitis, Sympathizing Eye, Causes and Treatment. Sympathetic ophthalmia, also called sympathetic ophthalmitis is a condition which results after penetrating trauma to one eye. This condition doesn't occur in the eye which has received the trauma, it occurs in the other healthy eye. An inflammatory reaction occurs in the other normal eye. This normal eye is called “sympathizing eye”. As it shows sympathy with the injured eye and becomes inflamed itself. This inflammatory reaction is not self-limiting. In fact, it continues for life if left untreated and vision may lose. Causes of Sympathetic Ophthalmia: The Exact cause of sympathetic ophthalmia (sympathetic ophthalmitis) is unknown. But scientists think it occurs due to an autoimmune reaction. Antibodies are formed against the eye uveal tissue which induces inflammation in the other eye. Other scientists think that it occurs in response to some bacterial antigens. Diagnosis: Diagnosis usua

Weight Loss Surgery for People Going for Weight Loss

Weight Loss Surgery for People Going for Weight Loss The latest trend and fashion that is prevailing in the market has got many changes in the lifestyle of the people. The main transformation took place in the food habits, where the healthy food has been replaced by junk foods. The ultimate result was unexpected obesity and overweight due to which the shape of the individuals is entirely disturbed. If you are one amongst them then it is time to get alert and work on reducing that extra weight. Eating junk food on a regular basis is the main reason for increasing mortality rate and causing heart diseases. Why to take risk? There is still a long life ahead to see. Therefore, search for an alternative that keeps you away from such risks. One of the best solutions to this problem would be weight-loss treatments that can include natural and surgical procedures. The natural method will cost low but the results will be time consuming with less guarantee whereas surgeries may cost higher  bu