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Diabetes Mellitus - sugar- understand basic pathology in simple words


Diabetes is a metabolic disorder and is characterized by high blood glucose level.
Everything that we eat is converted into simple particles after complete digestion.
Carbohydrates are converted into glucose eventually.
Proteins are converted to amino acids
Fats are converted into fatty acids.
fatty acids and amino acids can also be converted into glucose when glucose supply decreases.
glucose is the main nutrient that can be used
efficiently by the body for energy production in normal conditions.
Why blood glucose level rises:
The human body has an organ called pancreas. It secretes insulin.
insulin level is high when the blood glucose level is high.
Blood glucose level rises after a meal, so insulin level in blood is higher after a meal.

In diabetic patient, two things happen.
1. Insulin Production is decreased by the pancreas
2. Cells of the human body don't show a response to insulin
To understand why blood glucose level rises in diabetes, it is necessary to know the function of insulin.

         Insulin is a hormone which regulates normal blood glucose level. It induces glucose channels, which increases the permeability of cell membrane for glucose and make it available to the cell for the process of energy production.
If the effect of insulin decreases, either due to

decrease production of insulin
decrease response by the cells to insulin (insulin resistance)

The blood level of glucose raises because glucose can't enter into the cells, instead, glucose remains in the blood, and the level of glucose in the blood rises.

What is meant by the Decreased response by the cells to Insulin?

when glucose levels rise in the blood, the pancreas secretes insulin. This insulin induces pores formation in the cell membranes. These pores allow only glucose to pass through them. Sometimes cells don't show adequate response to insulin, It means, the membrane permeability to glucose won't increase after an increase in insulin levels, as a result, glucose fails to enter into the cells and its level in blood rises. The raised glucose in blood, in turn, stimulates the pancreas to secrete more insulin but again the cells will not show adequate response and this vicious cycle continues, as a result of this vicious cycle, the pancreatic cells will eventually exhaust and such diabetes then may be converted into type 1 diabetes.

Type of  Diabetes.

Type I diabetes: Diabetes due to a decrease in insulin secretion is called Type 1. the beta cells of the pancreas don't secrete enough insulin. and blood glucose levels rise.

Type II diabetes: Diabetes due to lack of response by the cells to insulin is called Type two. obesity is the main cause of this.

Gestational Diabetes: Pregnant women have high blood glucose levels and is called gestational diabetes. It is reversible, that is after delivery blood glucose level comes to normal.

Effects Of Diabetes on Body:

In diabetes, the blood glucose level rises. and glucose can't enter into the cells and the cells will look for the alternate source of energy.
The glucose is excreted in urine, So urine contains a high glucose level, which can be detected in the laboratory, which is a diagnostic measure.
But cells will try to survive and for this they require energy. So they will use alternately available nutrients for energy production. The alternate nutrients are fatty acids and amino acids.
The body fat storage will decrease and blood fatty acid, cholesterol, and Triglyceride levels rise. and the patient will lose weight as a result of increased fat and protein utilization for energy production.
Moreover increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides and glucose in the blood, renders the person vulnerable to diseases like
1. Hypertension.
2. Heart diseases
3. Infection (mainly subcutaneous)
4. Slow wound healing
5. polyurea ( urinary urgency/increase urine formation)
6. Renal damage (kidney problems)
7. Eye problems (vision problems)

all these effects are a result of  lack of the capacity of the body to use glucose.
Blood glucose is high in diabetes which causes damage to kidney and eyes.
increased levels of fatty acids and triglycerides will cause narrowing of blood vessels which can cause heart problems, stroke and Hypertension.

Best Ways to prevent diabetes.

Maintain healthy lifestyle.
Lose extra weight.
Take healthy diet (fruits and vegetables)
Take less sugar (it has not much effect)
Prefer fruits ( fruits have fructose which is sweeter than glucose and don't require insulin for its utilization.)
Regular exercise, jogging, swimming, walking etc.
If diabetes occurs follow the advice of the doctor and act accordingly and avoid sweet foods and take medicine regularly and on time. Diabetes is a manageable disease. and you can live a healthy normal life with diabetes if you follow your doctor's advice correctly.

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