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Showing posts from November, 2011

Federal Medical and Dental College Islamabad Contact Number

Federal Medical and dental college is the first public sector medical college in Islamabad, The capital city of the Islamic Republic Of Pakistan. It is allowed to admit 50 students per year by PMDC. It is Affiliated with the country’s premier Quaid-i-Azam University and it has the city’s premier Pakistan Institute of Medical Sciences as an attached teaching hospital

List Of Medical Colleges In Pakistan

Recognized Medical Universities:

Overview Of Immune System Of Human Body

Hirschprung's Disease-Cause-Signs and Symptoms-Treatment

Hirschprung's Disease: Hirschsprung's disease is a congenital disease, characterized by the absence of myenteric and submucosal ganglion cells in the distal Gastrointestinal tract ( GIT ); resulting in loss/decrease of motility in the affected bowel segment. The neuronal connections are necessary for proper contraction and reflexes of the colon. For example in a normal person when intestinal contents reach the distal colon, the walls of colon stretch. This stretch stimulates the myenteric plexus present in the colon wall. This stimulation results in strong peristaltic movement and the person feel the need for defecation. In Hirschsprung's disease the neuronal circuit in the distal colon is absent and when intestinal contents reach the distal colon, but in this case, the stretch in the intestinal wall doesn't lead to peristalsis. Accumulation of contents distend the distal colon which is referred to as megacolon Hirschsprung's disease, in other words,  is "

Peptic Ulcer and Acute Gastric Ulceration

Peptic Ulcer Acute gastric ulceration  (stress ulcers). Mostly single Lesion Mostly multiple Lesions Lesser curvature is most commonly affected It may affect any area of the stomach. Rugae disappear. Margins and base indurate. Rugae normal, Margins and base are not indurated. Adjacent mucosa usually inflamed. Unremarkable. Blood vessels thick and scarred. Normal blood vessels. Heals by Scar formation. Complete epithelial regeneration. No scar formation True ulcer formation common. Mainly erosions – Less commonly ulcer formations. Common Causes: H.pylori, NSAID. Severe trauma, burns, CVA or brain trauma. visit Home page

Whipple's Disease-Cause-Symptoms-Treatment

Whipple's Disease: Cause: Whipple's disease is a systemic disease caused by gram-positive bacteria called tropheryma whippelii (PAS positive and Z.N stain negative)  Pathogenesis: Like Mycobacteria tuberculosis there is an accumulation of foamy macrophages in the Lamina propria of the small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes causing a lymphatic obstruction and malabsorptive diarrhea. There is villous expansion instead of atrophy due to an accumulation of macrophages. Foamy macrophages can also deposit in synovial membranes, cardiac   valves, brain and other sites and produce symptoms Signs and Symptoms Whipple disease primarily affects gastrointestinal tract but it may affect any system of the body including the heart , lungs, brain, joints, skin, and the eyes. Signs and symptoms depend on the affected parts. Common signs and symptoms are. Diarrhoea, abdominal pain, weight loss and joint pain. Joint pain occurs years before the development of digestive trac

Ischemic Bowel Disease-Causes-Signs-Symptoms-Treatment

Ischemic Bowel Disease: Ischemia means a decrease in blood supply (blood flow) to an organ, tissue or part of the body. For example, cerebral ischemia means a decrease in blood supply to the brain. Maintenance of adequate blood flow is very important for correct and functioning and survival of an organ. Adequate blood supply provides oxygen and nutrients to the tissue and also removes waste materials from the site of formation. Inadequate blood flow or ischemia compromises the function of the organ because the organ is not getting enough nutrients and accumulation of toxic wastes destroy the function of the organ. If blood supply continues to decrease and ischemia is not correct, the organ may die. Maintenance of adequate blood flow is important. Because in some cases there is normal arterial blood supply but there is an obstruction in venous return. Therefore, blood won't flow through the vessels and this also results in ischemia. Ischemic bowel disease  is the disease of b

Intestinal Obstruction-Types-Causes-Clinical Signs-Treatment

Intestinal Obstruction: Intestinal Obstruction is defined as a partial or complete blockage of the bowel that results in the failure of intestinal contents to pass through it. Types : Intestinal obstruction can be classified into 2 types Dynamic Adynamic Peristalsis is working against a mechanical obstruction. It may occur in an acute or chronic form of mechanical obstruction Peristalsis Absent      The obstructing lesion may be: Intraluminal (Ex. impacted faeces, foreign bodies, gallstones)   Intramural (Ex. malignant or inflammatory strictures) Extramura l (Ex. intraperitoneal bands and adhesions, hernias, volvulus or intussusceptions.) l   ILEUS, esp. post surgical ¡   INFARCTION ¡   MOTILITY DISEASES, esp., HIRSCHSPRUNG DISEASE Other Classification. According to; Onset : Acute (sudden onset) and Chronic (slow onset) obstruction Site: Small intestine obstruction (also called high obstruction) a

Pancoast Tumor-Pancoast Cancer-Pancoast Syndrome

Difference Between H Pylori and Autoimmune Gastritis

Difference Between H Pylori and Autoimmune Gastritis H.Pylori associated. A.immune Inflammatory infiltrate . Neutrophills,Plasma cells Lymphocytes, macrophages. Acid production Increased or slightly decreased Decreased. Gastrin normal to decreased Increased Other lesions Hyperplastic / infiltrative polyps Neuro- endocrine hyperplasia Serology Antibodies sensitive  to H.pylori are found Antibodies  to intrinsic  factor. Sequelae Peptic ulcer, Adenocarcinoma Atrophy, pernicious  anaemia, Adeno- carcinoma, carcinoid tumor Association Poverty, overcrowding AutoImmne   diseases; Thyroiditis, D.mellitis, Graves disease Visit Home Page

Epidemic-Definition-Types Of Epidemic-Epidemic Curves

Epidemic Definition : An epidemic is defined as the occurrence in a community or region of cases of an illness or other health-related events clearly in excess of normal expectancy. (Park's textbook of preventive and social medicine) An epidemic occurs in the same area in a specified population at the same season of the year. Types Of Epidemic: A. Common Source epidemic.  As the name suggests "The origin of epidemic is a common source". For example, water poisoning. Only those People who drink infected water from a particular water supply will develop the disease. Hence, all patient would have a common source. Common source epidemic is further divided into two types: a) Point source epidemic: It is also known as "single exposure epidemic". In this case, the time of exposure is brief and essentially simultaneous and all the resultant cases develop the disease within the incubation period of disease at the same time. The epidemic curve, in this c

Epidemiology And Clinical Medicine-Difference

Difference Between Epidemiology and Clinical Medicine: 1. In epidemiology, the unit of study is "population" or "population at risk" while in Clinical Medicine the unit of study is a "case" or "cases". 2. In epidemiology, the epidemiologist is concerned with the disease patterns in the entire population while in clinical medicine the physician is concerned with the disease pattern in an individual patient. 3. Epidemiology is Concerned with the both "sick" and "healthy" (case and controls respectively) while clinicians are interested in cases with diseases. 4. The clinician is concerned with the diagnosis of disease, he derives a prognosis and prescribes specific treatment while an epidemiologist seeks to identify a particular source of infection, a mode of spread or an aetiological factor in order to determine a future trend and recommend specific control measures. 5. In clinical medicine, the patient comes to t

Types Of Tuberculosis-TB-Primary and Secondary Tuberculosis

Lung Abscess-Treatment-Causes-Signs and Symptoms

Lung Abscess: Lung abscess refers to a localized area of suppurative necrosis within the lung parenchyma, resulting in the formation of one or more large cavities filled with pus. Causes Of  Lung Abscess: 1. Aspiration of infective material from carious teeth, infected sinuses or tonsils particularly likely during oral surgery, anaesthesia, coma or alcoholic intoxication. 2. Aspiration of gastric contents. 3. As a complication of necrotizing bacterial pneumonia , particularly those caused by S. aureus, S. pyogenes, K. Pneumonia, P. Arigninosa and pneumococci. 4. Bronchial obstruction , particularly with bronchocarcinoma. Bronchial obstruction leads to secondary infections which may complicate to abscess formation. 5. Septic Embolism , from septic thrombophlebitis or from infective endocarditis of right side of the heart. 6. Hematogenous bacterial spread from other sites of infections. (Hematogenous means "through blood") Signs and Symptoms: 1. Pro