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Showing posts from April, 2017

Signs of COPD on Chest X-Ray. Dr. Adil Ramzan

Chest X-Ray in COPD is often normal. Even in advanced disease chest X-ray can be normal. But if the following signs are found in a chest X-Ray then they will be highly suggesting of COPD. Hyperinflation of lungs . Hyperinflation of lungs can be identified with the help of physical examination or chest X-Ray. On physical examination, you may find the upper border of liver displaced down and a barrel-shaped chest. While on chest X-Ray you may find hyper lucent lungs, flattening of hemi-diaphragms, and seven or more anterior ribs are seen over the lung shadow.  Pruning of Vessels : Central vessels are more prominent while less blood is seen in peripheral lung fields.  Large Bullae It is not necessary for a patient with COPD to have all of the above signs, as it has been mentioned earlier, the chest x-ray can be normal even when the disease is advanced, therefore, if you notice any of the above sign in a chest x-ray, then you may consider COPD as a differential in the absence of doc

Drugs Known to Cause Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension (PAH): Dr. Adil Ramzan

Pulmonary artery hypertension can be caused by a number of drugs. Some drugs are known to cause pulmonary arterial hypertension, while others are thought to be involved. Below is the list of drugs that may cause pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) Definitive causes of Pulmonary Artery Hypertension  Aminorex : A drug which was previously prescribed for weight loss, later withdrawn from the market when it was noticed that it causes pulmonary artery hypertension.  Fenfluramine : Another drug which was used in past for the purpose of weight loss, it is an anorectic drug, and decreases appetite. It was also withdrawn because it causes pulmonary artery hypertension.  Dexfenfluramine : An isomer of fenfluramine, was being used to induce weight loss.  Topical rapeseed oil : used as an anti-ageing agent.  Benfluorex : similar structure as that of fenfluramine.  Likely causes of Pulmonary Artery Hypertension.  Amphetamines : CNS stimulant Tryptophan : an amino acid. Methamph