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Showing posts from March, 2013

Why Spinal Anesthesia Cause Hypotension?

    Every Therapeutic technique has come with adverse effects. But the therapeutic technique is allowed only if it gives more benefits than harm. Spinal anesthesia provide excellent pain relief during surgery especially in cesarean delivery ( Read article on Pain relief methods during child birth ). It allow surgeries while patient is conscious. Patient feels no pain below the level of spinal anesthesia. Spinal Anesthesia has lesser complications as compared to general anesthesia. Spinal Anesthesia has its own complications and side effects. One of the complications of of spinal anesthesia is hypotension. Q: Why spinal anesthesia Cause Hypotension? Our vessels are supplied with autonomic nerve fibers. These nerve fibers originate from spinal cord and supply the vessels of lower limbs. These nerve fibers maintain a muscular tone in the blood vessels and don’t allow vessels to over-dilate and prevent pooling of blood. This mechanism help to maintain blood pressure. Major pool

Am I Over Weight? BMI and BMI Prime:

Do you want to know whether you are overweight or not? You must keep in mind there is a scientific method to know whether you are overweight or underweight. Many people are concerned about their weight and sometimes many individuals especially girls, start thinking that they are over-weight but actually they aren’t. Such girls stop eating and become very thin and weak. This condition is called anorexia nervosa. The scientific method used to find out about weight is called the Body-Mass Index. Factors on which Weight Depends: Body Mass Index depends on two factors: Body Mass The height of the body. 1. Body Mass: Mass is the weight of the body. (Mass and weight are mostly considered same biologically but are physically different quantities) The Mass of the body is measured in Kilograms or pounds. Most of the Asian countries use Kilogram as a unit to measure mass while most of the western countries use pound to measure mass. 2. The height of Body: Only mass can’t be

Difference Between Implantation Bleeding and Menstrual Bleeding

Every healthy woman experience monthly bleeding. This monthly cycle is called the menstrual cycle. The duration of the menstrual cycle varies woman to woman but the average duration of the menstrual cycle is 28 days. In this article, we will consider a woman having a menstrual cycle of 28 days. After every 28 days, a woman starts bleeding vaginally. The duration of this bleeding also varies from 3 – 7 days. If the bleeding stops in one or two days or continue more than 7 days than it could n’t be menstrual bleeding and other causes of vaginal bleeding must be excluded and you should see a doctor to have a proper physical and vaginal examination. There is another medical term called “implantation bleeding”. This bleeding occurs at the start of pregnancy and indicates attachment of embryo to the wall of uterus. Actually embryo embed itself in the wall of uterus and encroaches the uterine wall. During this encroachment the uterine vessels rupture and appear as vaginal bleeding. This blee

I Have Got My Period, Can i Still be Pregnant?

I have got a period can I still be pregnant? This is another question that has been asked to us several times. You may read our previous topic related to it “ chances of pregnancy after having unprotected sex ”. If you have had unprotected sex and after a few days you have noticed vaginal bleeding then there is a possibility that you may have got one of the following things. 1. Normal Menstrual bleeding 2. Implantation bleeding. 3. Dysfunctional uterine bleeding 4. Bleeding from the lower genital tract. 5. Bleeding from urethra instead of vagina. Normal Menstrual Bleeding: If you had read the article “ chances of pregnancy after having unprotected sex ” then now you know that not every unprotected sex result in pregnancy due to various factors. So there is a possibility that the bleeding is menstrual. Implantation Bleeding. This is something that every woman should know. Many women confuse implantation bleeding with menstrual bleeding and think that they are not pregnant

Pattern Baldness In Men-Causes and Solution

Pattern Baldness is also known as androgenic alopecia. It is a type of hair loss that occurs in males under the influence of circulating testosterone. Cause of Pattern Baldness Testosterone, in general, promote hair growth but with the unfortunate exception of scalp hair. Androgen-sensitive hair follicles gradually disappear under the influence of circulating testosterone. Testosterone itself causes less damage. It is converted into more active form Dihydrotestosterone (DHT) in testes, prostate, hair follicles and adrenal gland by the action of enzyme alpha-reductase. This dihydrotestosterone damages hair follicles of scalp and they gradually disappear. Pattern Baldness is a natural non-pathological form of hair loss in men and countless men are affected by this pattern baldness. The solution of Pattern Baldness: Nothing much can be done to stop hair loss. You shouldn’t be worried about hair loss as stress is a contributing factor. Other contributing factors are zinc deficiency,

Effects, Causes and Treatment of Low Testosterone in Men

Testosterone is the hormone which is responsible for the masculine appearance of males. Underproduction or decreased level of this hormone in men affects their appearance, mind, social, sexual and mental health. Testosterone is produced in Testes and the secretion of testosterone is under the control of hypothalamus and pituitary glands present in the brain. ICSH (interstitial cell-stimulating hormone, which is called Luteinizing hormone in females) is released by the pituitary which stimulates testosterone production. Effects of Low Testosterone in Men: Individuals with low testosterone level have a girly voice, scanty facial, chest and pubic hair, tall height, soft body, weaker bones, less confidence, depressed mood, decreased libido, impotence, difficulty in gaining orgasm and premature ejaculation ( Read an article on premature ejaculation ) Causes of Low Testosterone in Men: Causes of Low Testosterone in Men are given below. 1. Age: Testosterone Level decreases with incr

Bumps Inside Lower Lips- Are These Bumps Serious? Mucocoele:

  Bumps inside lower lips is a common condition which is present in many individuals. Many Individuals try to find out what is it and what has caused this? Is it a boil, node, or something serious like cancer? Well, the answer to this question is, most of the times the bumps inside lower lip are not serious. These bumps are produced by retention of fluid under the mucous membrane. These are called retention cysts or mucocele. It occurs when the duct of the mucous gland or accessory salivary gland is blocked. The fluid is collected under the mucosa and appear as whitish, pinkish, bluish or yellowish bump on the inside of the lower lip. These are treated by decapping or draining. These cysts are more common inside the lower lips but can also occur anywhere in mouth or pharynx. Small cysts don’t cause any problem and remain asymptomatic but larger cysts in pharynx may cause dysphagia (causes of dysphagia) and respiratory obstruction. A cyst can be single or multiple.

Hoarseness: Causes of Hoarseness: Examination and Investigations

HOARSENESS Hoarseness is defined as the roughness of voice, which results from an abnormality within the larynx with variation in periodicity, and intensity of consecutive sound waves. Pathophysiology Of Hoarseness: For the normal production of voice, vocal cords should be able to approximate properly with each other, have proper size and stiffness and have an ability to vibrate in response to the air column. Any condition that interferes with these functions may cause hoarseness. Loss of approximation may be seen in vocal cord paralysis, fixation of crico-arytenoid joint or any lesion present between the cords, preventing its approximation. Size and stiffness of the vocal cords may change due to paralysis, oedema, tumour, fibrosis and partial surgical excision. Cords are unable to vibrate properly in the presence of oedema, congestion, sub-mucosal haemorrhage, nodule, polyp or tumour. Causes of Hoarseness: Hoarseness may be acute (less than a few weeks in duration) or chronic (