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Showing posts from July, 2012

Online Safety Rules For Kids - Kids should Follow These Safety Rules

Following are the rules which kids should follow while using online services and the internet. If these rules are not followed it may lead to serious consequences Online Safety Rules for Kids 1. Don’t give out personal information (Address, Phone No. etc) 2. Tell the parents about anything that makes you uncomfortable 3. Never agree to get together with someone without first checking with the parents 4. Never send a person your picture or anything else without parents’ permission 5. Don’t respond to any messages that make you uncomfortable6. Tell your parents if you get such messages 7. Talk to your parents to know about rules for going online (Time of the day, length of online time, appropriate sites) 8. Never break these rules as they are important for your safety

Management and Treatment of Ovarian and Adenxal mass

Ovarian Cysts Management of Adnexal Mass Adnexal masses may be found as the result of a patient complaint or an incidental finding on an exam or an imaging study (ultrasound, computed tomography [CT], magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]). The etiology can be determined through consideration of the patient’s age, history, exam, ultrasound findings, and possibly tumor markers. The presence of ovarian cysts is more worrisome in peripubescent girls and post-menopausal women, as they are more likely to be malignant in these age groups. Other causes of adnexal enlargement on examination, besides ovarian lesions, include ectopic pregnancy and pelvic abscess. Management of Painful Ovarian Cysts Unilateral pelvic exam in the luteal half of the cycle is a common problem among menstruating women and is often due to a hemorrhagic luteal cyst. The diagnosis can be confirmed by pelvic ultrasound, which should reveal a complex cyst. Repeating the ultrasound after the next cycle (preferably in th

Torch Infection What is Torch Causes Symptoms Diagnosis and Treatment

Torch Infection An Overview: TORCH complex (also known as STORCH, TORCHES or the TORCH infections) is a medical acronym for a set of perinatal infections(i.e. infections that are passed from a pregnant woman to her fetus). TORCH infections can lead to severe fetal anomalies or even fetal loss. They are a group of viral, bacterial, and protozoan infections that gain access to the fetal bloodstream transplacentally via the chorionic villi. Hematogenous transmission may occur at any time during gestation or occasionally at the time of delivery via maternal-to-fetal transfusion. the acronym is spelt out as follows: 1. T – Toxoplasmosis / Toxoplasma gondii 2. O – Other infections (see below) 3. R – Rubella 4. C – Cytomegalovirus 5. H – Herpes simplex virus-2 The "other agents" included under O are Coxsackievirus, Syphilis,( Syphilis in Pregnancy and Neonate Read here  ) Varicella-Zoster Virus, HIV( HIV and Its diagnosis an Overview) , and Parvovirus B1

Ask Medical or Health Related Question

Medical Questions Important! Disclaimer and terms;  You must keep in mind  that proper physical examination and history is  necessary for diagnosis of a disease.   Information  provided on the site is meant to complement and not  replace any advice or information from a health  professional.  We will try to guide you about  the next immediate steps that you can take.  But you shouldn't act blindly, go to your doctor  and ask him. Our information may help you to  talk with your doctor in more detail. For  example, the questions you must ask from your  doctor about you condition. We are not responsible  for any mishap which can be linked directly or  indirectly to our  content. Medicotips team Members of Medicotips Team Some Answers; Q:  Pain on Right Side of Head. What to Do? asked by A Kumar Q: Missed Birth Control Pill and Bleeding Why? asked by: a visitor Q: What is Poly cystic Kidney Disease?  asked by: Abhi Arzoo Thank you for visiting our websit

Herpes Simplex Virus HSV Infection in Pregnant women and Newborn/Neonate

Herpes Simplex (HSV) •            There are two forms of HSV, HSV1 or HSV2 •            Primarily transmitted through the infected maternal genital tract •            The rationale for C-section delivery prior to membrane rupture •            Primary infection with greater transmission risk than reactivation Clinical Manifestations: •            Most are asymptomatic at birth •            3 patterns of ~ equal frequency with symptoms between birth and 4wks: •            Skin, eyes, mouth (SEM) •            CNS disease •            Disseminated disease (present earliest) •            Initial manifestations very nonspecific with skin lesions NOT necessarily present Diagnosis: •            The culture of maternal lesions if present at the delivery •            Cultures in an infant: •            Skin lesions, oro/nasopharynx, eyes, urine, blood, rectum/stool, CSF •            CSF PCR •            Serologies again not helpful given the high pre

Cytomegalovirus CMV Infection in Newborn. Transmission of CMV Infection from Mother to Baby

Cytomegalovirus (CMV) •            Most common congenital viral infection •            ~40,000 infants per year in the U.S. •            Mild, self-limiting illness •            Transmission can occur with primary infection or reactivation of the virus •            40% risk of transmission in primary infection •            Studies suggest increased risk of transmission later in pregnancy •            However, more severe sequelae associated with the earlier acquisition Clinical Manifestations: •            90% are asymptomatic at birth! •            Up to 15% develop symptoms later, notably sensorineural hearing loss •            Symptomatic infection •            SGA, HSM, petechiae, jaundice, chorioretinitis,  periventricular calcifications , neurological deficits •            >80% develop long term complications •            Hearing loss, vision impairment, developmental delay Massive ventricle Enlargement  Diagnosis : •            Maternal IgG shows only past infection •   

Rubella Infection In Pregnant Woman and Its Transmission to Baby Signs Diagnosis Treatment Prevention

    Rubella: •            Single-stranded RNA virus •            Vaccine-preventable disease •            No longer considered endemic in the U.S. •            Mild, self-limiting illness •            Infection earlier in pregnancy has a  higher probability of affected infant Reported Rubella and CRS: US 1996 to 2002 Clinical Manifestation: •            Sensorineural hearing loss (50-75%) •            Cataracts and glaucoma (20-50%) •            Cardiac malformations (20-50%) •            Neurologic (10-20%) •            Others to include growth retardation, bone disease, HSM, thrombocytopenia,  “blueberry muffin” lesions Blueberry muffin” spots representing extramedullary hematopoiesis  Diagnosis: •            Maternal IgG may represent immunization or past infection - Useless! •            Can isolate virus from nasal secretions •            Less frequently from throat, blood, urine, CSF •            Serologic testing •            IgM = recent postnatal or congenital infection

Syphilis in Pregnancy and Its Affects On Newborn Signs Diagnosis and Treatment

Syphilis: •            Caused By Treponema pallidum (spirochete) •            Transmitted via sexual contact •            Placental transmission as early as 6wks gestation •            Typically occurs during the second half •            Mom with primary or secondary syphilis is more likely to transmit than the latent disease •            Large decrease in congenital syphilis since the late 1990s •            In 2002, only 11.2 cases/100,000 live births reported Congenital Syphilis •            2/3 of affected live-born infants are asymptomatic at birth •            Clinical symptoms split into early or late (2 years is cut off) •            3 major classifications: •            Fetal effects •            Early effects •            Late effects Clinical Manifestations Fetal: •            Stillbirth •            Neonatal death •            Hydrops fetalis •            Intrauterine death in 25% •            Perinatal mortality in 25-30% i

Toxoplasmosis Clinical Signs Diagnosis and Treatment

Toxoplasmosis: •            Caused by protozoan – Toxoplasma gondii •           The domestic  cat is the definitive host with infections via: •            Ingestion of cysts (meats, garden products) •            Contact with oocysts in faeces •            Much higher prevalence of infection in European countries (ie France, Greece) •            Acute infection usually asymptomatic •            1/3 risk of fetal infection with primary maternal infection in pregnancy •            Infection rate higher with infection in the 3 rd  trimester Fetal death higher with infection in the 1 st  trimester

Types of Hospital Wastes-Color Coding and Waste Management Team , Plan and Waste Disposal

Health care wastes ¨   Health care waste is a term used for all wastes arising from health care establishment. ¨   Studies shows that in Pakistan in large hospitals 0.5-2 kg of waste is generated per bed per day. Out of this 0.1-0.5 kg can be categorized as biomedical risk waste. ¨   Biomedical wastes need clear management if not it may lead to injury by contaminated sharps and infection with hep-B, C and HIV Types of wastes ¨   Hospital wastes can be classified into two main groups. ¨   Risky and non-risky waste Risky.                                   Infectious                       Pathological                       Pharmaceuticals         Genotoxic                       Chemical                       Radioactive Infectious ¨   The wastes contaminated by any type of bacterium, virus, parasite or fungi and include, ¨   Culture from lab work ¨   Wastes from surgery and autopsies ¨   Wastes from infected patients ¨   Infected animals from lab ¨   Any materials having been in contact