Causes of splenomegaly enlarged spleen SPLENOMEGALY or Enlarged Spleen

Enlargement of Spleen is called Splenomegaly.

Spleen is situated in the left hypochondrium below the stomach. When It is enlarged It can be palpated in the left antero-lateral coastal margin.

There are various causes of splenomegaly (enlargement of spleen).

Some of the causes of splenomegaly (enlarged Spleen) are given below.

 

Causes Of Enlarged Spleen ( Splenomegaly)

Congestion

  • Cirrhosis
  • Hepatic vein occlusion Portal or splenic vein thrombosis
  • Congestive cardiac failure
  • Constrictive pericarditis

 

Infections

Acute infections

Typhoid Fever, septicemia, Infective endocarditis, Infectious mononucleosis, hepatitis, CMV

Chronic infections

Tuberculosis, brucellosis

Parasitic infestation

Malaria, kalazar, schistosomiasis, trypanosomiasis

Fungal infection

Histoplasmosis

 

Inflammation

  • SLE,
  • sarcoidosis,
  • Felty’s syndrome

 

Hematological disorders

  • Hemolytic anemias
  • Hemoglobinopathies such as thalassemia, Autoimmune hemolytic anemia, Megaloblastic anemia

 

Myeloproliferative disorders

  • Chronic myeloid leukemia
  • Myelofibrosis
  • Polycythemia vera
  • Essential thrombocytopenia

 

Neoplastic

  • Leukemia,
  • lymphoma,
  • metastatic cancer

 

Storage disease

  • Gaucher’s disease,
  • Niemann - Pick disease

 

Miscellaneous

 

Massive splenomegaly More than 8 cm below the to umbilicus.

  • Malaria
  • Kalazar
  • Chronic myeloid leukemia
  • Primary lymphoma of spleen
  • Portal hypertension

 

Moderate Spleenomegaly

About 4-8 cm below the left costal margin or large but not reaching to umbilicus (usually 2-4 fingers).

  • All causes of massive splenomegaly
  • Portal hypertension (cirrhosis, CCF)
  • Leukemia (acute or chronic)
  • Lymphoma
  • Thalassemia
  • Gaucher’s disease

 

Small Splenomegaly

Just palpable or 2-4 cm below costal margin (1-2 fingers).

  • Causes of massive and moderate splenomegaly
  • Hematological: polycythemia,anemia, megaloblastic anemia.
  • Infections: malaria, infective endocarditis, hepatitis, infectous mononucleosis.
  • Connective tissue disease: SLE, polyarteritis nodosa.

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