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Data,Types Of Data and Sources Of Data In Research Work

What is Data:
Collection of observations in a scientific way is called data. There are different types of data.  Data must be meaningful because it has a fundamental role in any research work or study. When a data becomes meaningful it is called information.

Sources Of Data.
1. Census
2. Newspaper,
3. Media documentaries,
4. National Database Registration Authority.
5. Published papers
6. Surveys
7. Official Records
8. Birth and Death Record
9. Emigration records
10. Immigration records

Sources of data differ according to the purpose of data collection.
In the collection of census data, we don't select particular population and we can't ask detailed questions, while in the collection of data during surveys, we may ask detailed questions from a part of of population selected by sampling.

Types of Data:
1. Categorical Data:
In this case Data is organized in to categories or groups.
        a) Nominal Data: Data is divided into groups. Forexample, Male and Female, Black and White, Rural and Urban.
        b) Ordinal Data: In this case data is put into some order. Forexample,  Upper class, middle class and lower class population or in population people with income below 1000$ per month, 1000-5000$, 5000-1000$ and so on.

2. Numerical Data
Numerical data is further divided into two types.
       a) Qualitative or Discrete Data: When you just count the number, for example, number of deaths in hospital, accidents in a city. One variable remain constant while other changes, for example, count students with pulse rate of 72/minute.
When data is collected, several ways can be adopted to represent the data, a qualitative data is represented by;

  • Bar diagram
  • Map diagram
  • Pictogram
  • Pie diagram
      b) Quantitative or Continuous Data: In this case, both variable change, for example counting the pulse rate of all the workers in a company. Measuring blood pressure, No of ill person in a population etc, Such data is represented by
  • Frequency polygon.
  • Frequency polygon curve
  • Histogram
  • Line diagram
  • Scattered diagram
3. Primary Data:
     Primary data is directly obtained from the individual ( e.g census )

4. Secondary Data:
     Secondary Data is obtained from some other or an indirect source. For example, from National database registration authority, Media, Published papers etc.


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