Hiatal Hernia
There is a opening in the diaphragm which is known as esophageal hiatus. Through this opening esophagus enters from the chest cavity into the abdominal cavity. In hiatal hernia upper part of the stomach enters into the chest cavity through this opening.

Types Of Hiatal Hernia:
a. Axial or sliding hernia (95%)
In this type, the stomach protrudes into the chest cavity only during swallowing, when swallowing is finished stomach falls back into the abdominal cavity. In the type the junction of esophagus and stomach and upper part of stomach both protrude in to the chest cavity. During swallowing esophageal muscles contract, esophagus shortens in length, this pulls the stomach up into the chest cavity, which returns back when swallowing is over.

b. Non-axial / paraesophageal / Rolling (5%) 
In this type the gastro-esophageal junction remains at it normal position, it does not enter the chest cavity. In this case only upper part of stomach enters into the chest cavity. It has nothing to do with swallowing. It does not come back to the abdominal cavity.

Signs and Symptoms:
Heart burn

Mucosal ulceration,

Surgical correction of hernia
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