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respiratory diseases

Chronic Bronchitis-Types-Causes-Clinical Signs and Symptoms

Chronic Bronchitis:
Chronic bronchitis is a respiratory airway disorder and is defined as a persistent productive cough for at least 3 consecutive months in at least 2 consecutive years.

Causes-Risk factors:
1. Smoking
2. people living in smog-ridden cities are at risk

3. Men are more at risk than females
4. Persistent chronic infections
5. Chronic asthma
6. Emphysema
7. Obstructive tumour
Types of Chronic bronchitis:
1. Simple Chronic Bronchitis:
     It is the most common form. The patients have a productive cough, but airflow is not obstructed.

2. Chronic asthmatic bronchitis:
     Some patients with chronic bronchitis develop hyperresponsive airways, with intermittent bronchospasm and wheezing. This condition is called chronic asthmatic bronchitis.

3. Chronic obstructive bronchitis:
     This is very common in heavy smokers. These patients develop chronic outflow obstruction (difficulty in exhaling air) usually with evidence of associated emphysema.

The chemicals present in cigarette and air pollutants induce hypertrophy of mucous glands of trachea and bronchioles.  This results in a marked increase in mucus secretion, this mucus may plug the airways and result in productive cough, with a large amount of mucus. This intermittent obstruction and a large amount of mucus is a good place for bacterial growth and bacterial infections are more common among such individuals, Moreover, this causes inflammation with infiltration with CD8+ cells, macrophages and neutrophils. T cells cytokines exacerbate the inflammation and IL 13 causes hypersecretion of mucus.

Clinical Signs and Symptoms:
1. Prominent Productive Cough
2. Clear, yellow, greenish or blood-tinged sputum
3. Shortness of breath
4. wheezing in the chronic asthmatic bronchitis
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