Achalasia, Signs, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Complications Of Achalasia.

In Achalasia food can't pass through esophagus properly and this causes progressive dysphagia (difficulty in swallowing) 
It is associated with three major abnormalities:
a. Aperistalsis.
b. Partial or incomplete relaxation of the lower esophageal sphincter.
c. Increased tone of the LES.

(Clinically there is progressive dysphagia.)

Causes:
lPrimary (Failure of the inhibitory neuronal supply).
Secondary (Chagas disease, Diabetic neuropathy,Polio,autoimmunity,amyloidosis, etc)

Signs and Symptoms:
1. difficulty in swallowing
2. Heavy sensation in chest
3. Chest pain
4. Regurgitation of food that is trapped in the esophagus into the mouth
5. Coughing 
6. Choking (food may enter the throat and block the tracheal air entrance)

Treatment
Laparoscopic myotomy and pneumatic balloon dilatation of lower esophageal sphinctor.

Complications Of Achalasia:
2. Esophageal ulcer
3. Esophageal cancer
4. Weight loss
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