Prostate Gland:
The prostate is a rounded structure present just below the bladder and surrounds the first few inches of the urethra
.
The prostate gland is an exocrine gland which secretes an alkaline secretion into the semen (during sexual activity).
This alkalinity of the prostate secretions helps to neutralize the acidity of vaginal secretions. Semen contains 30 percent secretions of the prostate.

Prostate Cancer.
               Prostate Cancer is A form of cancer that develops in this prostate gland. Most of the prostate cancer grows slowly but there are cases of fast developing and aggressive prostate cancer. (In old age about 2/3rd slow growing and 1/3rd fast developing and aggressive cancer in Europe).
Prostate cancer can be metastasized to another part of the body especially bones and lymph nodes.


Causes: 
              Exact Cause is unknown, but genetics and diet (folic acid supplements, Alcohol intake, zinc supplements) may contribute to it. High testosterone levels in young age is linked to prostate cancer.
This risk appears to be greater for men with an affected brother than for men with an affected father. .Men with high blood pressure are more likely to develop prostate cancer.

Symptoms:
               Symptoms of Prostate cancer include difficulty in urination, Increase in urinary frequency and urgency, painful urination, difficulty starting and maintaining a steady stream of urine, Erectile dysfunction, Difficulty and discomfort in sexual activity, painful ejaculation infertility. In advance cases, symptoms depend on the part of the body where cancer has metastasized.

Diagnosis: 
  •               PSA. (prostate specific antigen) High level of PSA in blood indicates a prostate abnormality. and among these abnormalities, cancer can be a possibility.
  •               Biopsy: Biopsy is used to confirm a prostate cancer. in biopsy, a small piece of the prostate is removed and examined under a microscope.
  •               Digital Rectal Examination: It is used to gather more information about prostate abnormalities. it helps in getting the idea of the extent of disease.
  •               Cystoscopy: A thin flexible tube along with a camera on the tip is used to examine inside of urinary tract.
  •               PCA3: another potential non-invasive method of early prostate tumour detection is through a molecular test that detects the presence of cell-associated PCA3 mRNA in urine. PCA3 mRNA is expressed almost exclusively by prostate cells and has been shown to be highly over-expressed in prostate cancer cells. PCA3 is not a replacement for PSA but an additional tool to help decide whether, in men suspected of having prostate cancer, a biopsy is really needed. The higher the expression of PCA3 in urine, the greater the likelihood of a positive biopsy, i.e, the presence of cancer cells in the prostate.
  •              Trans rectal ultrasonography: it is used to get an image of the prostate.


Treatment: 
Treatment for prostate cancer may involve
  • Active surveillance (monitoring for tumour progress or symptoms),
  • surgery (i.e. radical prostatectomy),
  • Radiation therapy
including brachytherapy (prostate brachytherapy) and external beam radiation therapy, High-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU),
  • Chemotherapy, oral chemotherapeutic drugs (Temozolomide/TMZ), cryosurgery (the process of freezing of tumour), hormonal therapy, or some combination

Prevention: 
                 Exercise and diet may help prevent prostate cancer to the same extent as medications such as alpha-blockers and 5-alpha-reductase inhibitors.

  • Two medications which block the conversion of testosterone to dihydrotestosterone, finasteride and dutasteride, have also shown some promise.
  • Ejaculation frequency
More frequent ejaculation also may decrease a man's risk of prostate cancer. One study showed that men who ejaculated five times a week in their 20s had a decreased rate of prostate cancer, though other studies have shown no benefit.

  •  Diet
Oils and fatty acids
Men with high serum linoleic acid, but not palmitic, can reduce the risk of prostate cancer by taking tocopherol supplementation.

Men with elevated levels of long-chain omega-3 fatty acids (EPA and DHA) had lowered incidence.
A long-term study reports that "blood levels of trans fatty acids, in particular trans fats resulting from the hydrogenation of vegetable oils, are associated with an increased prostate cancer risk.

Some researchers have indicated that serum myristic acid and palmitic acid and dietary myristic and palmitic saturated fatty acids and serum palmitic combined with alpha-tocopherol supplementation are associated with an increased risk of prostate cancer in a dose-dependent manner. These associations may, however, reflect differences in intake or metabolism of these fatty acids between the precancer cases and controls, rather than being an actual cause.


  • Other methods of prevention

Vegetarian: The American Dietetic Association and Dieticians of Canada report a decreased incidence of prostate cancer for those following a vegetarian diet.

Low-carbohydrate diet: In lab tests on mice, prostate tumours grow slower with a no-carbohydrate diet.

Coffee: A preliminary study found a correlation between coffee consumption and a lower risk of aggressive prostate cancer.

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