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Hypertension means an increase in blood pressure.
The heart pumps blood into the blood vessels. this creates some pressure that blood exerts against the walls of the vessels. this pressure is called blood pressure.

Systolic BP

it is the pressure of the blood which it exerts against the walls of vessels at the time when the heart contracts. it the pressure which gives us a bumping feel when we try to feel our pulse at the wrist. the normal value of systolic blood pressure is 120 mm of Hg. this value increases with age. 

Diastolic BP

it the pressure of the blood against the walls of vessels when the heart relaxes or at a time when it is not pumping. it is less than systolic and its normal value is 80 mm of Hg.

Why BP rises.

BP rises in following conditions

1. narrowing of the vessels ( increase resistance)

when vessels become narrow they will cause an increase in BP. 
narrowing can be a result of increased sympathetic stimulation that is in fear, anxiety, atherosclerotic state, or any other problem.

2. increase in blood volume.

increase in blood volume will obviously increase blood pressure.
increase in volume is mainly because of kidney problems, heart failure or endocrine problems.
so we have to treat the cause to treat the BP.

regular exercise and decrease sodium intake, increase potassium intake, eating vegetables, balanced diet, and maintaining normal weight and medications can greatly reduce the risk of hypertension

Causes of high blood pressure and consequences

Now hypertension in the clinical setting is defined as systolic blood pressure greater than 140 or diastolic blood pressure greater than 90, recorded in more than two separate occasions. 

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