Osteoporosis-Causes-Risk factors-Prevention and Treatment
What is Osteoporosis?
Osteoporosis is a disease of bones. In this disease, bone mass decreases and bones become, fragile and more likely to break.
Hip bone, vertebrae and wrist bones are more vulnerable to break. Hipbone and spine fractures are a major concern. A hip fracture almost always requires surgery and hospital admission and spine fracture results in serious consequences, for instance, loss of height, severe back pain, and deformity.

What are the causes of osteoporosis?
The exact cause of osteoporosis is not known. Our bone is continuously being formed and broken down. But in younger age, the bone-forming cells form new bone at a faster rate than those cells which absorb older bone. But the ability of these bone-forming cells to form new bone decreases with increasing age. Therefore, in older age, Bone mass decreases because bone forming cells don’t work properly and bones become fragile, weak and vulnerable to fracture.

Risk Factors:
People having risk factors are more likely to develop osteoporosis:
Ø  Female
Ø  Advanced Age
Ø  Thin bones/decreased bone mass
Ø  Family history of osteoporosis
Ø  Poor diet / malnutrition
Ø  Postmenopause
Ø  Low testosterone level in men
Ø  Anorexia nervosa
Ø  Diet low in calcium and vitamin D
Ø  No or very little exposure to sunlight
Ø  Excessive use of alcohol
Ø  Cigarette smoking
Ø  An in an active lifestyle
Ø  Use of certain medicines
Ø  Being Asian or Caucasian.
Ø  Recent studies suggest that athletes are also at higher risk.

Diagnosis:
1.       Bone Density Tests:
These tests
a)      Can detect osteoporosis at an early stage, before the onset of fracture
b)      Predict the chances of getting osteoporosis in future
c)       Can tell the effect of treatment and rate of bone loss
comparison-between-normal-and-osteoporotic-bone
Comparison between normal and osteoporotic bone

When should one have a bone density test?
1.       You use medications that cause osteoporosis
2.       You have type diabetes, liver disease, family history or kidney disease
3.       You experience early menopause
4.       You are over 50, postmenopausal and have at least one risk factor.
5.       You’re post-menopausal, over 65 and never had a test.
Prevention:
Ø  Building enough bone stores at an early age is the best defence against the disease. 
Ø  By taking a balanced diet, rich in calcium and vitamin D.
Ø  Weight-bearing exercise
Ø  Maintaining a healthy lifestyle
Ø  No smoking or alcohol consumption
Ø  Having Bone density test when indicated.

Sources of Calcium:
1.       Low-fat milk
2.       Cheese
3.       Broccoli
4.       Yoghurt
5.       Chocolate pudding
6.       Protein tofu, sardines salmon
7.       Vegetables: Turnip greens, Bok Choy, Collards greens.
8.       Calcium-fortified supplements if dietary intake is inadequate.
Sources of Vitamin D
1.       Exposure of skin to sunlight
2.       Egg yolk
3.       Saltwater fish
4.       Liver

Which type of exercise help?
1.       Weight-bearing exercises in the adolescence greatly reduce the risk of getting osteoporosis. Exercises like walking, dancing, running, hiking, jogging, stair climbing, and sports are helpful.

Treatment
Certain medicines help to delay bone loss. Alendronate, raloxifene, and risedronate have been approved for the treatment of osteoporosis. Estrogen replacement therapy is recommended for postmenopausal osteoporosis
Educate teenagers and mothers about the risk factor of osteoporosis and methods of prevention. Share this article and help your loved ones.
Wish you a healthy life

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