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heart diseases

Types Of Arterial Thrombus (Thrombi) and Venous Thrombus (thrombi)


Morphology Of thrombi. 

Arterial Thrombi (Thrombus)
Arterial thrombi are also called white thrombi.

  1. They develop in arteries or heart at the site of endothelial injury or turbulence
  2. On the transaction, they show darker grey lines of aggregated platelets interspersed between paler layers of coagulated fibrin. These lamellae are referred to as lines of Zahn
  3. They are dry, friable, tangled grey masses
  4. Arterial Thrombi may form enormously elongated snake-like structures, the tail of which build up retrograde to the direction of blood flow ( that is away from the heart) 
Types Of Arterial Thrombi (Thrombus)
  1. Mural Thrombus: It refers to " a thrombus that is attached to the wall of blood vessel or heart but doesn't occlude the vessel completely
                       Sites Of Mural Thrombosis: Capacious chambers of heart, Aorta, Aneurysms.

     2.  Occlusive Thrombus: It refers to a thrombus that completely occludes the lumen of small arteries. 
                       Common sites of occlusive thrombosis are; coronary arteries, Femoral Arteries, Cerebral arteries, iliac arteries, popliteal arteries, Mesenteric arteries etc.

      3. Vegetations: They refers to the thrombi deposited on the heart valves. vegetations are found in bacterial infective endocarditis, non-bacterial thrombotic endocarditis and in autoimmune diseases.

Venous Thrombi (thrombus)
                              Venous thrombi are also called red thrombi or phlebothrombosis. It is usually occlusive. 
They have the following characteristics. 
  1. They are rich in RBCs and therefore, are called red, coagulative or stasis thrombi.
  2. On transaction, lamination is not well marked. but tangled strands of fibrin are seen.
  3. Venous Thrombi create a long snake-like cast of the lumen of the vein, the tail of which extends in the direction of the blood flow that is toward the heart.
Site Of venous thrombosis.

          Almost 90 % of all venous thrombi develop in deep veins of the lower limb, that is femoral, popliteal and iliac veins. 
less commonly venous thrombi develop in peri-prostatic plexus or ovarian and peri-uterine veins.

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