Skip to main content

Clinical Signs Of Thrombosis and Treatment

Thrombi cause clinical manifestations either by obstructing arteries and veins and formation of emboli

Clinical Manifestations due to Venous Thrombi.

(1) superficial Venous Thrombi
     It occurs commonly in saphenous veins especially when there are varicosities.
     Clinical manifestations include;
  • Local congestion and swelling
  • Pain tenderness along the course of veins
  • Varicose ulcer
One thing which is peculiar to venous thrombi is that they don't embolize.

(2) Deep Venous Thrombi.
       They occur in deep veins of the leg. for example femoral, popliteal and iliac veins
       Clinical manifestations include;
  • Oedema of foot and ankle
  • Pain and tenderness on compression of calf muscles, This is also called "Homan's sign"
  • They may embolize and may cause pulmonary embolism and infarction.
(3) Thrombophlebitis and phlebothrombosis.
     Both terms refer to pain, tenderness, and oedema due to vascular stasis, oedema and distension of the affected vessel at the local site of thrombus formation. this usually follows the administration of cannula.

(4) Milk Leg
      It refers to painful white legs that occur in the third trimester of pregnancy

(5) Migratory Thrombophlebitis (Trousseau's Sign)
     It refers to appearance of thrombi in one vein that disappears and then re-appear in another vein. it occurs in visceral cancer especially some abdominal neoplasms.

Clinical Manifestations Due To Arterial Thrombosis.
Arterial thrombi develop in following conditions
  1. Atheroseclerosis
  2. Aortic aneurysms 
  3. Reumatic heart disease
  4. Myocardial infarction
Clinical conditions:
  1. Complete or partial obstruction of blood vessels and consequent infarction or ischemia of the organ supplied.
  2. Fragmentation of thrombi which embolize to the vessels of brain, kidney, spleen and legs with resultant infarction of these organs.

        Anticoagulants such as warfarin and haparin are commonly used to treat thrombosis. Warfarin is also used prophylactically to decrease the risk of post surgical thormbosis. (DVT etc). In case of Fresh thrombus streptokinase or alteplase are given.



Popular posts from this blog

Human Parasites, Types of Parasites, and Classification

Parasite: A parasite is a living organism which gets nutrition and protection from another organism where it lives. Parasites enter into the human body through mouth, skin and genitalia. In this article, we will generally discuss the types and classification of parasites. It is important from an academic point of view. Those parasites are harmful, which derives their nutrition and other benefits from the host and host get nothing in return but suffers from some injury. Types of Parasites Ecto-parasite: An ectoparasite lives outside on the surface of the body of the host. Endo-parasite: An endo-parasite lives inside the body of the host, it lives in the blood, tissues, body cavities, digestive tract or other organs. Temporary parasite: A temporary parasite visits its host for a short period of time. Permanent parasite: Permanent parasite lives its whole life in the host. Facultative parasite: A facultative parasite can live both independently and dependently. It lives in the

How to taper off, wean off beta blocker, atenolol, Propranolol, Metoprolol

Beta blockers include, atenolol (Tenormin), propranolol (Inderal ) and metoprolol (Lopressor) and are used to treat high blood pressure, certain cardiac problems, migraine and few other conditions. People usually take atenolol, propranolol or metoprolol for many years as a treatment of high blood pressure or after having an episode of heart attack . Sometimes, it becomes necessary to withdraw these beta blockers due to their potential side effects that trouble the patients or sometimes doctor wants to change the drug and shift the patient to some other anti-hypertensive medicine. No matter whatever the cause is, whenever, a patient who has been using a beta blocker for a long period of time, and he needs to be stopped from further usage of that beta blocker, must not stop taking it. One should taper off the dose of a beta blocker. Now a question arises how to wean off or taper off a beta blocker? The method of tapering off beta blocker varies from individual to individual. Allow you