Skip to main content

Amniotic Fluid Embolism - pathogenesis and clinical manifestations.

Amniotic Fluid Embolism.
      It refers to "the presence of amniotic fluid in the blood vessels of the mother. The amniotic fluid contains squamous epithelium of fetal skin, lanugo hair, fat from vernix caseosa and mucin from fetal GIT.

It commonly occurs in older multiparous patients who have undergone emotionally stressed labour.

Amniotic fluid enters the mother's circulation through endocervical veins, uteroplacental sites or laceration of uterus or cervix. Amniotic fluid contains;

  1. vasoactive substances for example prostaglandins that cause pulmonary vasoconstriction. pulmonary vasoconstriction decreases the capability of lungs and patient will show the signs like cyanosis, tachypnea and dyspnea.
  2. Thrombogenic factors that induce intravascular coagulation, leading to Disseminated intravascular coagulation and its complications ( e.g haemorrhages and acute renal failure)
Clinical Manifestations:

Sudden onset of dyspnea, cyanosis, collapse and haemorrhage.
Convulsion followed by comma. 


    Popular posts from this blog

    Human Parasites, Types of Parasites, and Classification

    Parasite: A parasite is a living organism which gets nutrition and protection from another organism where it lives. Parasites enter into the human body through mouth, skin and genitalia. In this article, we will generally discuss the types and classification of parasites. It is important from an academic point of view. Those parasites are harmful, which derives their nutrition and other benefits from the host and host get nothing in return but suffers from some injury. Types of Parasites Ecto-parasite: An ectoparasite lives outside on the surface of the body of the host. Endo-parasite: An endo-parasite lives inside the body of the host, it lives in the blood, tissues, body cavities, digestive tract or other organs. Temporary parasite: A temporary parasite visits its host for a short period of time. Permanent parasite: Permanent parasite lives its whole life in the host. Facultative parasite: A facultative parasite can live both independently and dependently. It lives in the

    How to taper off, wean off beta blocker, atenolol, Propranolol, Metoprolol

    Beta blockers include, atenolol (Tenormin), propranolol (Inderal ) and metoprolol (Lopressor) and are used to treat high blood pressure, certain cardiac problems, migraine and few other conditions. People usually take atenolol, propranolol or metoprolol for many years as a treatment of high blood pressure or after having an episode of heart attack . Sometimes, it becomes necessary to withdraw these beta blockers due to their potential side effects that trouble the patients or sometimes doctor wants to change the drug and shift the patient to some other anti-hypertensive medicine. No matter whatever the cause is, whenever, a patient who has been using a beta blocker for a long period of time, and he needs to be stopped from further usage of that beta blocker, must not stop taking it. One should taper off the dose of a beta blocker. Now a question arises how to wean off or taper off a beta blocker? The method of tapering off beta blocker varies from individual to individual. Allow you

    Difficulty in standing up from a sitting or squatting position, Causes & Solution

    People who feel it difficult to stand up from a sitting or squatting position may have problem in one or more of the following structures. 1. Knee joint 2. Muscles of legs, thighs or buttock 3. Muscles of arms 4. Cerebellum Let’s now explain one by one, what kind of problems in above structures may cause difficulty in standing up from a sitting or squatting position. 1. How do problems in knee joints lead to difficulty in standing up? Knee joint is one of the primary and most affected joint that takes part in standing up. Other joints that take part are hip, ankle, knee, elbow, wrist and shoulder joint. Knee joint gets the most strain , and also knee joint is comparatively less supported. That’s why usually it’s the knee joint that starts to cry first because of arthritis. Knee joint arthritis causes long term knee pain , that makes the movement difficult at knee joint. Arthritis also makes the knee joint stiffer and slower and its range of motion also decreases. All these affects coll